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Top# Types of Functions

### Constant Polynomial Functions:

### Linear Polynomial Functions:

### Quadratic Polynomial Functions

**For example****, **value of f(x) = 2x^{2 }+ x - 1 at x = 2.

Put x = 2, f(2) = 2.2^{2} + 2 - 1 = 9

### Cubic Polynomial Function:

A polynomial of the degree three is called the cubic polynomial and is denoted as follows:

f(x) = ax^{3 }+ bx^{2} + cx + d, a ≠ $\ne $ 0.

Given below are the graphs of different types of functions.

### Odd and Even Functions

When there is no change in the sign of f(x) when x is changed to â€“x, then that function is called an__even function__. (i.e) f(-x) = f(x)

Let us consider f(x)=2x2−3 $f(x)=2{x}^{2}-3$

f(−x)=2(−x)2−3=2x2−3 $f(-x)=2(-x{)}^{2}-3=2{x}^{2}-3$

f(x)=f(−x) $f(x)=f(-x)$

Other examples are,g(x)=cosx $g(x)=\mathrm{cos}x$ , h(x)=ex+e−x $h(x)={e}^{x}+{e}^{-x}$

The graph of an even function is such that the two ends of the graph will be directed towards the same side. We can observe this from the following graph ofy=2x2−3 $y=2{x}^{2}-3$. The graph remain unaltered when reflected about the y-axis.

When the sign of f(x) is changed when x is changed to â€“x, then it is called an__odd function.__

(i.e) f(-x) = - f(x).

Let us consider f(x)=x3+6x $f(x)={x}^{3}+6x$

f(−x)=(−x)3+6(−x)=−x3−6x=−(x3+6x)=−f(x) $f(-x)=(-x{)}^{3}+6(-x)=-{x}^{3}-6x=-({x}^{3}+6x)=-f(x)$

f(x) $f(x)$ is an odd function.

Other examples areg(x)=tanx $g(x)=\mathrm{tan}x$ , h(x)=x5−3x3+9x+8 $h(x)={x}^{5}-3{x}^{3}+9x+8$

The following graph shows the odd function,f(x)=x3 $f(x)={x}^{3}$ , and its reflection about the y-axis, which is f(−x)=−x3 $f(-x)=-{x}^{3}$.

### Inverse Functions

From every functiony=f(x) $y=f(x)$, we may be able to deduce a function x=g(y) $x=g(y)$, such that the composition fog=Iy $fog=Iy$ , gof=Ix $gof=Ix$. Meaning the composition of the function and its inverse is an identity function. In an inverse function, we may be able to express the independent variable in terms of the dependent variable.

For example,y=f(x)=(x+1)x−1 $y=f(x)=\frac{(x+1)}{x-1}$

y=x+1x−1 $y=\frac{x+1}{x-1}$

y(x−1)=x+1 $y(x-1)=x+1$

xy−y=x+1 $xy-y=x+1$

xy−x=1+y $xy-x=1+y$

x(y−1)=y+1 $x(y-1)=y+1$

x=(y+1)(y−1)=g(y) $x=\frac{(y+1)}{(y-1)}=g(y)$

Let us find(gof)(x)=g[f(x)] $(gof)(x)=g[f(x)]$

=g[(x+1)(x−1)] $=g\left[\frac{(x+1)}{(x-1)}\right]$

=x+1x−1+1x+1x−1−1 $\frac{\frac{x+1}{x-1}+1}{\frac{x+1}{x-1}-1}$

=x+1+x−1x−1x+1−x+1x−12xx−1×x−12 $\frac{\frac{x+1+x-1}{x-1}}{\frac{x+1-x+1}{x-1}}\frac{2x}{x-1}\times \frac{x-1}{2}$

=x $x$

Similarly, we can prove that(fog)(y)=y $(fog)(y)=y$, hence g $g$ is the inverse of f $f$ and f $f$ is the inverse of g $g$.

### Algebraic Functions

A function which consists of finite number of terms involving powers and roots of independent variable x and the four fundamental operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division is called an algebraic function.

For example, f(x)=5x3−2x2+5x+6 $f(x)=5{x}^{3}-2{x}^{2}+5x+6$, g(x)=(2x+4)√(x−1)2 $g(x)=\frac{\sqrt{(2x+4)}}{(x-1{)}^{2}}$

Polynomials, rational functions and irrational functions are all the examples of algebraic functions.

### Transcendental Functions

Functions which are not algebraic are called transcendental functions.

For example,f(x)=sinx $f(x)=\mathrm{sin}x$, g(x)=log(x) $g(x)=\mathrm{log}(x)$, h(x)=ex $h(x)={e}^{x}$ , k(x)=tan−1(x) $k(x)={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}(x)$

Trigonometric functions, Inverse trigonometric functions, exponential functions, logarithmic functions are all transcendental functions.

The graph along side shows the graph of y=sin(x) $y=\mathrm{sin}(x)$

### Special Functions

Modulus Functions:

Modulus functions are defined as follows.

y = |x | = { x, if x â‰¥ 0

-x , if x < 0.

For example, | 3 | = 3, and | -4 | = -(-4) = 4, since -4 < 0.

The graph of the modulus function y = |x| is shown below.

Greatest Integer Function:

The greatest integer functions are of the form y = [x]. This is also called as the step function.

For example,[x]=0 $[x]=0$ if 0≤x<1 $0\le x<1$

[x]=1 $[x]=1$, if 1≤x<0 $1\le x<0$

The graph of the greatest integer function will be as shown below. We observe that the function is a curve and is not continuous. Hence, the function is not continuous.

Constant Function:

If f : R→ $\to $ {c}, defined by f(x) = c, for every xεR $x\epsilon R$, then f is called a constant function of R.

For example, f(x) = 8, g(x) = -5 are all constant functions. The graph of the functions, y = 8 and y = -5 are shown below.

Identity Function:

The identity function maps each member of the domain onto itself. That is, if I is the identity function, then for any x in the domain, I(x) = x. It is also denoted as y = x.

The graph of the identity function is given below.

We observe that the graph passes through the points (-4,-4), (-2,-2), (0,0), (2,2), (4,4) and (6,6). This is because the relation is y = x.

**Circular Functions:**

The sine and cosine functions of elementary trigonometry and their inverses and functions derived from them.

For example,f(x)=2sin(x)+5cos(x) $f(x)=2\mathrm{sin}(x)+5\mathrm{cos}(x)$

The graph of the functiony=2sin(x)+5cos(x) $y=2\mathrm{sin}(x)+5\mathrm{cos}(x)$ is given below.

The mathematical concept of a function expresses the intuitive idea that one quantity completely determines another quantity. An equation will be a function if for any x in the domain of the equation, there is exactly one value of y. More formally, a function is defined a type of relation which has only one output value with respect any permissible input value. The argument and the value may be real numbers, but they can also be elements from any given sets: the domain, the co-domain of the function and all the assigned values are in the Range of the function. It is important how we assign the values to each element of the domain.

There may be different types of functions in mathematics. The classification of functions on the basis of properties may be as follows :**(1)** Even Function**(2)** Odd Function**(3)** Monotonic Function**(4)** Surjective Function**(5)** Bijective Function**(6)** Injective FunctionThe functions can be classified into following on the basis of variables used :

In this article, we shall learn about few of the above mentioned types of functions.

A polynomial or algebraic function is a function which can be expressed in the following form:

In this expression, the highest power which is present in the expression is called the degree of the polynomial function. According to the degree, we have some different types of polynomial functions as follows:

- If the degree is one then we can say that the given polynomial function is linear.
- If the degree is two then we can say that the given polynomial function is quadratic.
- If the degree is three then we can say that the given polynomial function is cubic.

It is a polynomial of the o^{th} degree, where f(x) = cx^{0} = c(1) = c.It disregards the input and the result is always c. Its graph is a horizontal line.

**For example** f(x) = 2, whatever the value of x result is always 2.

It is a polynomial of the first degree, the input should be multiplied by m and it adds to c. It is represented as f(x) = m x + c ** such as **f(x) = 2x + 1 at x = 1.

f(1) = 2 . 1 + 1 = 3

f(1) = 3

A polynomial of the second degree is represented as

f(x) = ax^{2 }+ bx + c, a

Put x = 2, f(2) = 2.2

A polynomial of the degree three is called the cubic polynomial and is denoted as follows:

f(x) = ax

Given below are the graphs of different types of functions.

When there is no change in the sign of f(x) when x is changed to â€“x, then that function is called an

Other examples are,

The graph of an even function is such that the two ends of the graph will be directed towards the same side. We can observe this from the following graph of

When the sign of f(x) is changed when x is changed to â€“x, then it is called an

(i.e) f(-x) = - f(x).

Other examples are

The following graph shows the odd function,

From every function

For example,

Let us find

=

=

=

Similarly, we can prove that

A function which consists of finite number of terms involving powers and roots of independent variable x and the four fundamental operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division is called an algebraic function.

Polynomials, rational functions and irrational functions are all the examples of algebraic functions.

Functions which are not algebraic are called transcendental functions.

For example,

Trigonometric functions, Inverse trigonometric functions, exponential functions, logarithmic functions are all transcendental functions.

Modulus Functions:

Modulus functions are defined as follows.

y = |x | = { x, if x â‰¥ 0

-x , if x < 0.

For example, | 3 | = 3, and | -4 | = -(-4) = 4, since -4 < 0.

The graph of the modulus function y = |x| is shown below.

Greatest Integer Function:

The greatest integer functions are of the form y = [x]. This is also called as the step function.

For example,

The graph of the greatest integer function will be as shown below. We observe that the function is a curve and is not continuous. Hence, the function is not continuous.

Constant Function:

If f : R

For example, f(x) = 8, g(x) = -5 are all constant functions. The graph of the functions, y = 8 and y = -5 are shown below.

Identity Function:

The identity function maps each member of the domain onto itself. That is, if I is the identity function, then for any x in the domain, I(x) = x. It is also denoted as y = x.

The graph of the identity function is given below.

We observe that the graph passes through the points (-4,-4), (-2,-2), (0,0), (2,2), (4,4) and (6,6). This is because the relation is y = x.

The sine and cosine functions of elementary trigonometry and their inverses and functions derived from them.

For example,

The graph of the function

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